Verb (Verbum)

The circumflex accent ( ˆ ) is used to denote the length of the vowels.

Verb is a word that characteristically is the grammatical center of a predicate and expresses an act, occurrence, or mode of being.

It was noted that the Latin thought in the classical period understood and faced the world actively, as it turns out, and this was reflected into the language by a relatively rich varieties of verbal modifications.
General Notions
Finite and Non-Finite Verbal Forms

The Latin grammarians have divided the verbal forms into two classes:

1. Verba finita, or personally defined verbal forms,
2. Verba infinita, or personally undefined verbal forms.

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Persons (Personae)

Latin has three persons:

Unlike in English, the persons in Latin were indicated by specific verbal endings, the personal pronouns being attached to the verbs to express emphasis only.
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Tenses (Tempora)

Tense is a distinction of form in a verb to express distinctions of time or duration of the action or state it denotes.
There are six tenses in Latin, traditionally divided into two groups:

I. Main tenses

  1. The Present tense (Praesens) denotes a state or action in the very moment of the utterance;
  2. The Future tense (Futurum) denotes a state or action that will take place very soon;
  3. The Future Perfect tense (Futurum secundum or Futurum exactum) denotes a future state or action that will precede another future state or action.
I. Past (or historical) tenses
  1. The Imperfect tense (Imperfectum) denotes a past state or action that is taking place with another past state or action;
  2. The Perfect tense (Perfectum) denotes a state or action that has taken place before the time of the utterance;
  3. The Pluperfect tense (Plusquamperfectum) denotes a state or action that had happened in the remote past or had preceded another past state or action.
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Moods (Modi)

Mood is a distinction of verb to express whether the action or state it denotes is conceived as fact command, possibility, or wish. There are three moods in Latin:

  1. The Indicative (Indicatiivus) represents the denoted act or state as an objective fact.
  2. The Imperative (Imperativus) expresses the will to influence the behavior of another.
  3. The Subjunctive (Conjunctivus or Subjunctivus) represents a denoted act or state not as fact but as contingent or possible or viewed emotionally (as with doubt or desire). It is used mainly in subordinite clauses. When used in main clauses, it expresses a slight command, insistence or invitation.
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Voices (Genera)

The voice indicates the relation of the subject of the verb to the action which the verb expresses. There are two voices in Latin:

1. The Active voice (Activum) asserts that the person or thing represented by the grammatical subject performs the action represented by the verb:
    Pater amat filiam suam. The father loves his daughter.

2. The Passive voice (Passivum) asserts that the grammatical subject of a verb is subjected to or affected by the action represented by that verb:
    Pater amatur a filia sua. The father is loved by his daughter.

The Passive voice has sometimes reflexive meaning.
A special class is formed by the so called deponent verbs (verba deponentia) that have passive forms only, but with active meaning:
    Imperator miilites hortatur. The general is encouraging the soldiers.

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Verba infinita

Verba infinita are non-personal verbal forms that are not conjugated. There are four such forms in Latin:

  1. The Infinitive (Infinitivus) performs some functions of a noun and at the same time displays some characteristics of a verb like tense (present, future and perfect) and voice and may have an object.
  2. The Participle (Participium) is a word having the characteristics of both adjective and verb. Like the infinitive, the Latin participles has distinction of tense (present, future and perfect) and voice and may have an object. On the other hand, it is declined like an adjective.
  3. The Gerund (Gerundium) is a verbal noun that expresses generalized or uncompleted action. It is a neuter verbal noun of II declensiion, used in Singular only, without Nominative form.
  4. The Supine (Supinum) is a verbal noun of IV declension used in Accusative of purpose (-um) and in Ablative of specification (–u).
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Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

The transitive verbs are those that may take a direct object. Only they may be used in Passive voice.
    The intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object and limit the effect of the action to the Subject itself. In the passive voice they are used impersonally in 3 p. sg. only, cf.:

curro I run and curritur it is run.
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Conjugations (Conjugationes)

The Latin verbs have usually three stems: present, perfect and participial.
    According to the endings of the present stems the grammarians have classified the verbs into four classes (conjugations):

The conjugation are most easily recognizable in the present infinitive form of the verbs.
Note that according to the accentuation rules the present infinitives of the I, II and IV conj. are stressed on the punultimate, while those of the III conj. – on the antepenultimate.
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Verbal Endings

The Latin tenses are formed from the relevant stems plus specific temporal characteristics and the personal verbal endings. These endings are identical for all tenses of Indicative and Subjunctive, except for the Perfect Indicative.
Perfect Indicative
-o, -m
-or, -r
= pres. stem

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Conjunctive Vowels

When the verbal stem is ended by a consonant or –u (=[w]), there are inserted conjunctive vowels between the stem and the temporal characteristic or personal ending that follow it.
The conjunctive vowels are always short and they are as follows:
-e- before –r leg|e|re to read
-i- before –m, –s, –t leg|i|mus we read, leg|i|s thou read, leg|i|t he / she reads
-u- before –nt leg|u|nt they read, leg|u|ntur they are read

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