International Phonetic Alphabet

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Consonants
 

Labial

Dental

Palatal

Velar

bilabial

labio-
dental

dental and alveolar

retroflex

palato-
alveolar

alveolo-
palatal

palatal

velar

uvular

pharyngeal

glottal

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

-

+

Stops

p

b

   

t

d

           

c

 

k

g

q

         

Fricatives

F

b

f

v

T, s

D, z

   

S

J

       

x

G

       

h

 

Nasals

m

     

n

             

N

 

M

           

Laterals

         

l

             

L

               

Vibrant

         

r
ò
Ò

                     

R

       

Semivowels (Approximants)
 

w

Y

                   

j

(Y)

(w)

           

Vowels

 

                     

palatal

central

velar

         

Closed

y

u

                 

i

y

   

â

u

         

Semi-closed

%

o

                 

e

%

^

 

o

         

Semi-opened

#

O

                   

E

#
@

 

Q
ç

O

         

Opened

A, a

                     

a

A

             
 
 
Pronunciation Examples

[p] Engl. pink, F. porte, Sp. palabra etc.
[
b] Engl. bear, F. bourg, It. bere etc.
[
t] Engl. turn, F. tourner, Sp. tornado etc.
[
d] Engl. donkey, F. dormir, Sp. dormir etc.
[
c] Engl. kin, F. qui, Sp. querer, It. chiesa etc.
[
k] Engl. car, F. croire, Sp. creer etc.
[
g] Engl. garbage, F. gare, Sp. ganar etc.
[
q] Engl. queen, F. quoi, Sp. cuándo, It. quando etc.
[
F] G..schwester.
[
B] Sp. deber.
[
f] Engl. fat, F. finir, Sp. fecha etc.
[
v] Engl. void, F. voir, It. venire etc.
[
T] Engl. think, Sp. zorro, cinco etc.
[
s] Engl. soap, F. cinq etc.
[
D] Engl. there, Sp. cada etc.
[
z] Engl. zoom, F. zigzag etc.
[
S] Engl. shoot, F. chance, Port. cheio etc.
[
J] Engl. vision, F. jardin, Port. janela etc.
[
x] Sp..justo.
[
G] Sp. luego.
[
h] Engl. home.
[
m] Engl. mind, F. morceau, Sp. madre etc.
[
n] Engl. nine, F. nouveau, Sp. nuevo etc.
[
N] Port. vizinho, F. ligne, Sp. niño, It. legno, etc.
[
M] Engl. sing.
[
l] Engl. loom, F. long, Sp. largo etc.
[
L] Port. filho, It. figlio etc.
[
r] It. rosso.
[
ò] Sp. reloj, correcto etc.
[
Ò] Engl. random, Port. leer.
[
R] F..rouge.
[
w] Engl. well, F. ouate, Sp. juego etc.
[
Y] F. huite.
[
j] Engl. yet, F. mien, Sp. cuyo etc.
[
i] Engl. fit, F. si, Sp. si etc.
[
e] Engl. beg, F. thé, It. pesca etc.
[
E] F. mettre, Sp. bella, G. Bett etc.
[
a] Engl. cast, F. patte, Sp. caro etc.
[
A] F. pâte.
[
O] F. porte, It. / Sp. cosa, G. Sonne etc.
[
o] F..beau, It..dove.
[
u] Engl. too, F. tout, Sp. jugar etc.
[y] F. l
une, G. über.
[
%] F. peu, G. schön.
[
#] F. veuve, G. zwölfe.
[
Ç] Engl. hot.
[
Q] Engl.Am. cut.
[
âÂ] Rum. mîna.
[
@] Engl. cat.
[
^] Engl. about, F. petit, G. bitte etc.
[
ç] Engl. sofa, Port. para.
 

Additional Notes

The tilde (˜) over a vowel is used to mark nasalization, cf. F. chien [Si}], change [S{J] etc.
The lengthening of the vowels is marked by (:), cf. Engl. car [ka:r], F. fort [fO:r] etc.
The primary accent is marked by (') and the secondary one by (), cf. Engl. justification [dJQstifi'keiS^n].
 


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© Zdravko Batzarov